Lighting Ballast, Anderson Study

Professor Christopher Cotropia’s Parallel Study

Professor Anderson is not the only academic with a background that includes clerking at the Federal Circuit and practice at a major national patent firm:

“[C]laim interpretation[ ] is still truly de novo”: Professor Christopher Cotropia of the University of Richmond with parallel credentials at the Federal Circuit and private practice has conducted a study that “indicate[s] that the Federal Circuit’s review of claim interpretations is still truly de novo and performed to correct lower court decisions (a) where patentees win and (b) especially where patents covering electronics, information technologies, and business methods succeed.” Abstract of Cotropia, Christopher A., Is Patent Claim Interpretation Review Deference or Correction Driven? (May 16, 2013) , available at SSRN: or

An Anti-Patentee Federal Circuit? An unstated conclusion difficult to avoid reaching is that the Federal Circuit is an increasingly anti-patentee forum for the industries identified in the summary.

Lighting Ballast vs Philips Electron

Lighting Ballast

Lighting Ballast v. Philips Electronics

About Harold Wegner (756 Articles)



Foley & Lardner LLP


Harold C. Wegner is a partner in the international law firm of Foley & Lardner LLP, where he is actively engaged in cutting edge domestic and international patent issues. Domestically, Prof. Wegner focuses upon appellate patent issues as well as reexamination and other complex matters at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Globally, Prof. Wegner crafts strategies for multinational and particularly Chinese and Japanese patent enforcement and management.

Prof. Wegner is the former director of the Intellectual Property Law Program at the George Washington University Law School, where he had been a professor of law; he continues his affiliation with George Washington as member of the Dean’s Advisory Board. He has been a visiting professor at Tokyo University and spent several years as a Mitarbeiter at the Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property Law in Munich followed by service as a Kenshuin at the Kyoto University Law Faculty.

Prof. Wegner holds degrees from Northwestern University (B.A.) and the Georgetown University Law Center (J.D.). He started his career as a patent examiner. In 1980 he founded his own law firm; in 1994 he merged his practice into the Foley firm.